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This report was written, researched, and produced by the staff of the Equal Justice Initiative. It is the result of a collective effort by all of our lawyers, law fellows, justice fellows, interns, students, and staff, who have spent hundreds of hours over the last four years conducting research and investigation. This publication would not be possible without the dedicated work of everyone on our staff. I would like to specially thank Jennifer Taylor for research, writing, and editing; Aaryn Urell for research, writing, editing, and layout preparation; Rachel Judge for research and writing; Kiara Boone for photo research and licensing; Alicia D'Addario for research and writing; Mickey Hubbard for research and writing; Adam Murphy for research, writing, and editing; Sia Sanneh, Estelle Hebron-Jones, John Dalton, Madeline Bailey, GeDá Jones Herbert, Mark Feldman, Rebecca Livengood, Sade Stevens, and Brooks Emanuel for research, writing, and editing; Maki Somosot for photo research and editing; Evan Milligan, Gabrielle Daniels, Abigail Gellman, Jonathan Kubakundimana for photo research and editing; Justin Porter, Sam Reiss, Kari Nelson, Elliot Spillers for research; Sonia Kapadia and Randy Susskind for design assistance and research; Zachary Katznelson, Katy Miller, Carla Crowder, Ben Harmon, Ajwang Rading, and Jenny Williams for research. We want to thank all of the talented photographers who documented this important history and have allowed us to use their images. We are grateful to Madeo for design and production work. For additional content and information, please visit

Bryan Stevenson, Director

© 2018 by Equal Justice Initiative. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, modified, or distributed in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means without express prior written permission of Equal Justice Initiative. Suggested citation: Equal Justice Initiative, Segregation in America (2018).